Letter Leaders References

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Letter Leaders Program Research References

Abbott, R., & Berninger, V. (1993). Structural equation modeling of relationships among developmental skills and writing skills in primary and intermediate grade writers. Journal of Educational Psychology (85) 3. 478-508.

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Berninger, V. (1994). Reading and Writing Acquisition: A Developmental Neurophyschological Perspective. Dubuque, IA: Brown and Benchmark.

Berninger, V. (2012). Strengthening the mind’s eye. Principal May/June 2012. 28-33.

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Case-Smith, J. (2002). Effectiveness of school-based occupational therapy intervention on handwriting. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 56 (1), 17-25.

Case-Smith, J., & Pehoski, C. (1992). Development of Hand Skills in the Child. Bethesda, MD: American Occupational Therapy Association.

Cermak, S.A. (1991). Fine motor functions and handwriting. In A.G. Fisher, E.A. Murray & A. Bundy (Eds.), Sensory integration: Theory and practice (pp.166-170). Philadelphia: FA Davis.

Christensen, C. A. (2004). Relationship between orthographic-motor integration and computer use for the production of creative and well-structured written work. British Journal of Educational Psychology. 74. 551-564.

Cole. M (2008). Applied Theories in Occupational Therapy: A Practical Approach Thorofare  NJ: Slack Incorporated.

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Daniel, M. & Froude, E.  (1998). Reliability of occupational therapists and teacher evaluations of the handwriting quality of grade 5 and 6 primary school children. Australian Journal of Occupational Therapy. 45 (2), 48-58.

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Exner, C. & Henderson, A. (1995). Cognition and motor skill. In A. Henderson & C. Pehoski (Eds.),Hand function in the child: Foundations for remediation (pp. 93-110). St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book.

Feder, K., & Majnemer, A. (2003). Children’s handwriting evaluation tools and their psychometric properties. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 23(3), 65-84.

Feder, K.P. & Majnemer, A. (2007). Handwriting development, competency, and intervention. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 49(4), 312-317.

Feder, K., Majnemer, A., & Synnes, A. (2000). Handwriting: Current trends in occupational therapy practice. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 67(3), 197-204.

Fisher, A. Murray, E., & Bundy, A. (1991). Sensory Integration theory and Practice. Philadelphia, PA: FA Davis.

Gerde, H., Bingham, G., & Wasik, B (2012). Writing in early childhood classrooms: Guidance for best practice. Journal of Early Childhood Education. 40(6), 351-359.

Goldstein, L. (1997). Between a rock and a hard place in the primary grades: The challenge of providing developmentally appropriate early childhood education in an elementary school setting. Early Childhood Research Quarterly 12(1), 3-27.

Graham, S. (2011) Handwriting: A basic building block of literacy. Zaner Bloser Newsletter Columbus: Zaner Bloser Publishing.

Graham, S., Weintraub, N., & Berninger, V. (2001). Which manuscript letters do primary grade children write legibly? Journal of Educational Psychology. 91 (1). 488-497.

Graham, S. (1992). Issues in handwriting instruction. Focus on Exceptional Children, 25(2), 1-13.

Graham S., Berninger, V.,  Abbott, R., Abbot, S. & Whitaker, D. (1997). Role of mechanics in composing of elementary school students: a new methodological approach. Journal of Educational Psychology. (89). 170-182.

Graves, D. (1994). A Fresh Look at Writing. Portsmouth: Heineman.

Hagin, R. A. (1983). Write right- or left: A practical approach to handwriting. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 16(5), 266-271.

Hammerschmidt, S. & Sudsawad, P. (2004). Teachers’ survey on problems with handwriting: referral, evaluation and outcomes. American Journal of Occupational Therapy 58 (2), 185-192.

Henderson, A. & Pehoski, C. (1995). Hand function in the child. St. Louis: Mosby.

Hoy, M. (2011). A systematic review of interventions to improve handwriting. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy.

Hoy, M.M., Egan M.Y. & Feder,  K.P. (2011). A systematic review of interventions to improve handwriting. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy – Revue Canadienne d Ergotherapie 78(1):13-25.

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Karlsdottir, R., & Stefansson, T. (2002). Problems in developing functional handwriting. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 94. 623-662.

Klein, S., Guiltner, V. Sollereder, P & Cui Y. (2011). Relationships between fine motor, visual-motor and visual perception scores and handwriting legibility and speed. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics 31 (1), 103-114.

Klotz, M & Canter, A. (2007). Response to Intervention (RTI): A Primer for Parents.  National


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Laszlo, J. & Bairstow. P. (1984). Handwriting difficulties and possible solutions. School Psychology International 5 (1), 207-213

Levine, M. (1987). Developmental variation and learning disorders. Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing Co.

Maeland, A. (1992). Handwriting and perceptual motor skills in clumsy, dysgraphic and ‘normal’ children. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 75(3 Pt. 2), 1207-1217.

Markham, L. (1976). Influences of handwriting quality on teacher evaluation of written work. American Educational Research Journal. 13 (4),  277-283.

Marr, D., Windsor, M. & Cermak, S. (2001). Handwriting readiness: Locatives and visuomotor skills in the kindergarten year. Early Childhood Research and Practice (ECRP) 3 (1).

Medwell, J. & Wray, D. (2007). Handwriting: what do we know and what do we need to know? Literacy, 41 (1), 10-15. 

Morin, M., Lavoie, N. & Montesinos, I. (2012). The effects of manuscript, cursive or manuscript/cursive on writing development in grade 2. Language and Literacy (14) 1. 110-121.

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Newell, K. M.  (1991). Motor skill acquisition. Annual Review Psychology, 42, 213-237.

Schmidt, R. A. (1975). A schema theory of discrete motor skill learning, Psychology Review, 82 (4), 225-260.

Schmidt, R. A. (2003). Motor schema theory after 27 years: reflections and implications for a new theory. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 74 (4), 366-75.

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Tseng, M., & Murrary. E. (1994). Differences in perceptual-motor measures in children with good and poor handwriting. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research. 14 (1), 19-36.

Van Hartingsveldt, M., De Groot, I, Aarts, P., & Nijhuis-Van Der Sanden, M. (2011). Standardized tests of handwriting readiness: a systematic review of the literature. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 53 (6),  506-515

Volman, M., Van Schendel, B., & Jongmans, M. (2006). Handwriting difficulties in primary school children: a search for underlying mechanisms. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 60 (4), 451-456.

Weil, M., & Amundson, S. (1994). Relationship between visuomotor and handwriting skills of children in kindergarten. American Journal of Occupational Therapy 48 (11), 982-988.

Winstein, C. J. (1991). Knowledge of results and motor learning-implications for physical therapy. Physical Therapy, 71(2), 140-149.

Woodward, S. & Swinth, Y. (2002). Multisensory approaches to handwriting remediation: Perceptions of school-based occupational therapists. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 56 (3), 305-312.

Wulf, G. (2007). Attention and motor skills learning. Illinois: Edward Brothers.

Zwicker, J. G.,  & Harris, S. R. (2009). A reflection on motor learning theory in pediatric occupational therapy practice. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 76(1), 29-37.